domingo, 2 de setembro de 2007

Bahia

THE BEGINNING OF BRAZIL IS HERE!

Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil, and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the fourth most populous Brazilian state after São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, and the fifth-largest in size. It is also the most important state, in terms of history and culture, in Brazil's Northeast Region. Bahia's capital is the city of Salvador, or more properly, São Salvador da Bahia, and is located at the junction of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of All Saints. First seen by European sailors on November 1, 1501, All Saints' Day.

The Portuguese Pedro Álvares Cabral landed at what is now Porto Seguro, on the southern coast of Bahia in 1500, and claimed the territory for Portugal. In 1549, Portugal established the city of Salvador, on a hill facing the Bay of All Saints. The city and surrounding captaincy served as the administrative and religious capital of Portugal's colonies in the Americas until 1763. The Dutch held control of Bahia from May 1624 to April 1625. Charles Darwin visited Bahia in 1832 on his famous Voyage of The Beagle.

Bahia was a center of sugar cultivation from the 16th to the 18th centuries, and contains a number of historical cities, such as Cachoeira, dating from this era. Integral to the sugar economy was the importation of a vast number of African slaves; more than 37% of all slaves taken from Africa were sent to Brazil, mostly to be processed in Bahia before being sent to work in plantations elsewhere in the country.

According to the IBGE 2000 Demographic Census, Bahia's population breakdowns are as follow:

Whites 3,067,786 (23%)

Blacks 1,700,531 (13%)

Asians 23,868 (less than 1%)

Mixed race 8,095,318 (62%)

Indigenous 60,329 (about .5%)

Bahia has the largest numerical population of self-identified Black residents in Brazil, as well as the one of the highest combined percentages (75%) of Black and mixed-race residents of any Brazilian state.

The state's geographical regions comprise the Atlantic Forest the recôncavo region radiating from the Bay (the largest in Brazil), the site of sugar and tobacco cultivation; and the planalto, which includes the fabled sertão region of Bahia's far interior.

Bahia is bordered, in counterclockwise fashion, by Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Piauí, and Maranhão to the north, Goiás and Tocantins to the west, and Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo to the south.

The São Francisco River, Brazil's second longest river system, runs from the Atlantic Ocean along the state's northern border with Sergipe and Pernambuco down through the planalto into the neighboring southern state of Minas Gerais.

Bahia is the main producer and exporter of cacao in Brazil. In addition to important agricultural and industrial sectors, the state also has considerable mineral and petroleum deposits. In recent years, soy cultivation has increased substantially in the state.

During the 19th century, one of Brazil's greatest poets, the Bahian abolitionist poet and playwright Castro Alves, a native of the recôncavo city of Cachoeira inspired his most famous poem, Navio negreiro, about slavery; the poem is considered a masterpiece of Brazilian Romanticism and a central anti-slavery text.

1- Responda as questões abaixo, em português, de acordo com o texto:

a) Em que ano Darwin visitou a Bahia? _______________________________________________________

b) Por que a “baía de todos os santos” recebeu esse nome?________________________________________

c) Até que ano Salvador foi a capital das colônias portuguesas? ____________________________________

d) Quando o cultivo de cana-de-açúcar teve seu auge?___________________________________________

e) Qual raça é predominante na Bahia segundo o censo? _________________________________________

f) Qual a porcentagem de escravos eram mandados ao Brasil ? _____________________________________

g) Quem foi o principal ícone baiano do século XIX?_____________________________________________

h) Qual é a população do estado da Bahia, segundo o último censo?_________________________________

i) Qual foi o período que os holandeses controlaram a Bahia? _____________________________________

j) Quantos pessoas de origem indígena habitam o estado? ________________________________________


2- Escreva a tradução para as expressões abaixo:

a) producer and exporter of cacao__________________________________________________________

b) European sailors_____________________________________________________________________

c) most important state__________________________________________________________________

d) administrative and religious capital_______________________________________________________

e) mixed-race residents__________________________________________________________________

f) industrial sectors_____________________________________________________________________

3- Escreva ( M ) modificadores e ( N ) núcleo para os grupos nominais abaixo:

a) Brazilian Romanticism_________________________________________________________________

b) Demographic Census__________________________________________________________________

c) highest combined percentages___________________________________________________________

d) greatest poets_______________________________________________________________________

e) tobacco cultivation___________________________________________________________________

f) Atlantic Ocean_______________________________________________________________________

g) most famous poem____________________________________________________________________

h) petroleum deposits____________________________________________________________________

4- Escreva ( V ) verdadeiro ( F ) falso , para as afirmações abaixo:

( ) Castro Alves nasceu em Salvador.

( ) A Bahia produz soja.

( ) A Bahia é o quarto estado mais populoso do Brasil.

( ) A Bahia é o segundo maior estado do Brasil em área.

( ) Goiás e Tocantins ficam ao leste da Bahia.

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