terça-feira, 11 de dezembro de 2007


Espírito Santo is one of the states of southeastern Brazil, often referred to by the abbreviation "ES". With its capital at Vitória and largest city at Vila Velha. Those who are born in the state are known as "Capixabas", authough the precise word is "Espiritossantenses". The name means literally "holy spirit" after the Holy Ghost of Christianity. With an extensive coastline (40% of the territory is on the coast), the State has the main ports of the country but the beaches are the best tourist attractions. Vitória, the capital, is on an island, next to Guarapari, well known by its sands. In the extreme north is Itaúnas part of the municipality of Conceição da Barra, whose sand dunes and forró are famous. Still on the coast, the typical gastronomy is another attraction with the moquecas capixabas and many fruits from the ocean and seafood. In the interior of the State are the many natural beauties, as the parks of Pedra Azul and Alto Caparaó, and the Italian and German colonies.
With 46.180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, and has a variety of habitats including coastal planes, lakes, mountain forest, mangroves and many others.
The islands of Trindade and Martim Vaz, 715 km East of Vitória in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, also belong to Espirito Santo state.

The main river in the state is the Doce. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin which is the northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, and Jucu River Basin which flows into the sea at roughly the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch (which seems to come out of Vitoria).

Espírito Santo's climate is tropical along the coast, with dry winters and rainy summers. North of Doce River it's generally drier and also hot. In the moutaineous regions in the south and south west of the state, the tropical climate is strongly influenced by altitude, and the average temperatures are colder.
One of the most important lake districts in Brazil lies on the banks of the Doce river. The area contains some 26 large lakes, the biggest of which is called Juparanã Lake.

The state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as Serra (where one can find the 2,890 m Pico da Bandeira mountain), which is part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Highlands. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme southwest of the state, and is shared with Minas Gerais.
This Brazilian state is in the east of the southeastern subdivision of Brazil, which also contains the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), the state of Bahia (N), the state of Minas Gerais (N) and (W), and the state of Rio de Janeiro (S). Espírito Santo's main cities (outside of the Greater Vitória region) are Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Colatina, Linhares, São Mateus and Aracruz.

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