terça-feira, 19 de agosto de 2008

MINAS GERAIS

MINAS GERAIS


Minas Gerais is one of the 26 states of Brazil, the second most populous and fourth largest by area in the federation. The capital is the city of Belo Horizonte, near the center of the state.

Minas Gerais is in the west of the southeastern subdivision of Brazil, which also contains the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. It borders on Bahia and Goiás (north), Mato Grosso do Sul (far west), the states of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (south) and the state of Espírito Santo (east). It also shares a short boundary with the Brazilian Federal District. Minas Gerais is situated between 14º13'58' and 22º54'00' ' south latitude and between 39º51'32' ' and 51º02'35' ' longitude west of Greenwich.

Minas Gerais was formed mainly by colonists who searched for veins of gold and gems, and later diamonds. (The name literally means general mines, a shortening from Minas dos Matos Gerais, or mines of the general woods, this being originally the hinterland to the incipient colonies of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga and São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro.) These helped to boost occupation of the inner lands and led to the foundation of several new villages. The first capital and seat of the local see was the city of Mariana; it was later moved to Vila Rica. In the late 18th century, Vila Rica was the biggest city in Brazil and one of the biggest of the Americas in population. As the gold mines were exhausted over the 19th century, the city lost its importance; it was later renamed Ouro Preto and remained the state capital until the construction of the all-new, planned city of Belo Horizonte at the turn of the 20th century.

The gold cycle left its mark in cities such as Mariana, Ouro Preto, Diamantina, Sabará, Tiradentes and São João del Rei. The relative isolation from European influence, added to the huge influx of gold and other valuable minerals, helped the local people to develop their own style art, which became known as Barroco Mineiro. Prime examples of this period are the richly decorated churches at the colonial cities, some of them preserved today as museums. The most important artist of this period was Antônio Lisboa, who became known as Aleijadinho. His statues and paintings are now highly valued by experts as one of the most refined artistic expressions outside Europe at that time.

During the 18th century, mining exploration was strongly controlled by the Portuguese Crown, which imposed heavy taxes on everything extracted (one fifth of all gold would go to the Crown). Several rebellions were attempted by the colonists, always facing strong reaction by the imperial crown. The most notable one was the Inconfidência, started by group of middle-class colonists, mostly intellectuals and young officers. They were inspired by the American and French Revolutions and Illuminist ideals. The conspiracy failed and the rebels were arrested and exiled. The most famous of them, Joaquim José da Silva Xavier (known as Tiradentes), was hanged by order of Queen Maria I of Portugal, becoming a local hero and a national martyr of Brazil. The Minas Gerais flag—a red triangle on a white background—is based on the design for the national flag proposed by the "Inconfidentes", as the rebels became known.

1- Encontre as expressões abaixo no texto em inglês:

a) Revolução francesa____________________________________________________

b) Ideais iluministas ________________________________________________________

c) Coroa portuguesa _______________________________________________________

d) Expressões artísticas refinadas _____________________________________________

e) Herói local _____________________________________________________________

f) Minas de ouro __________________________________________________________

g) Impostos pesados _______________________________________________________

h) Ciclo do ouro ___________________________________________________________


2- Escreva ( V ) verdadeiro, ( F ) falso, para as afirmações abaixo sobre o texto:

( ) A palavra southeastern significa “sul”.

( ) Até o final do século XIX podia ser encontrado ouro em Minas Gerais.

( ) Antônio Lisboa era o nome de um famoso artista da época.

( ) Ouro Preto já foi a capital mineira.

( ) Sabará não foi uma cidade importante no período colonial.

( ) Segundo o texto, Belo Horizonte era a maior cidade do Brasil, na época.

( ) Minas é o segundo maior estado do Brasil.

3- Identifique o sujeito ( S ), Verbo ( V ) e o objeto nas frases abaixo:

a) Mining exploration was controlled by the Portuguese Crown.

b) Vila Rica was the biggest city in Brazil.

c) Minas Gerais was formed mainly by colonists.

d) gold mines were exhausted over the 19th century.

4- Responda as perguntas abaixo em português:

a) Qual o período em que a coroa portuguesa controlou a mineração?__________________

b) Qual a latitude me Minas Gerais? ____________________________________________

c) Quem mandou executar Tiradentes? _________________________________________

d) Qual era o antigo nome do Rio de Janeiro?_____________________________________

5-Encontre no texto o que se pede:

a) 07 palavras cognatas:_____________________________________________________

b) 04 verbos no passado: ___________________________________________________

c) 02 cognatos perfeitos ____________________________________________________

d) 04 palavras no plural: _____________________________________________________

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